MARTHA NUSSBAUM

Upheavals of thought: the intelligence of emotions

Nussbaum on compassion (pdf) 

Nussbaum's definition of compassion p 321:

"Compassion, then, has three cognitive elements: the judgement of size (a serious bad event has befallen someone); the judgement of nondesert (this person did not bring the suffering on himself or herself); and the eudaimonistic judgement (this person, or creature, is a significant element in my scheme of goals and projects, an end whose good is to be promoted.)"

Nussbaum's definition of empathy p 327:

"More often, however, empathy is like the mental preparation of a skilled (Method) actor: it involves a participatory enactment of the situation of the sufferer. This awareness of one's separate life is quite important if empathy is to be closely related to compassion: for if it is to be for another, and not fir the oneself, that one feels compassion, one must be aware of both of the bad lot of the sufferer and of the fact that it is, right now, not one's own."